The More Things Change…

The More Things Change…

For more than 50 years, massage was an integral part of nursing education at Johns Hopkins. Notes from lectures on massage can be found in student notebooks beginning with the first class in 1889 and continuing through 1942.

The page displayed here is from the notebook of Emma Cleaver, a member of the first nursing class to graduate from Johns Hopkins in 1891. She had 23 pages of notes on massage in her notebook, indicating the importance of the practice in the curriculum. Cleaver’s notebook was exhibited at the 1893 World’s Fair in Chicago.

The More Things Change


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